# Maths - four rules of number

This page is to help parents to follow all the procedures used in schools today to ensure that children have a good understanding and firm grasp of the Four Rules of Number: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. All the mathematical work that children do in their school days will be based on these four rules of number. Visual aids such as counters, beads, etc. should be used early on so that your child has a visual concept too. It is essential that children practise and understand these procedures. Practical learning can be enjoyed  when out and about....try counting the number of trees in the park, pick chestnuts or acorns and play a counting game. As learning progresses it will be a good idea to choose appropriate worksheets at home and enjoy working on these together.

This work would usually be done in Early Years and continued in KS1. It can be useful to parents to find a stage in the processes which have been taught to your child in school and start again at a slightly easier paper to increase confidence. The use of physical objects such as mentioned above will help so that your child can relate the visual examples with the numbers. The four worksheets at the top of each section give a progression in teaching.

Be sure that your child can count to 10 before starting addition. It is then beneficial to start with simple sums such as 1 + 2 = 3 and encourage your child to use blocks/ beads/ counters etc.  as a visual aid to reinforce the new learning. There are papers below which will help you and your child to enjoy adding numbers.

#### Subtraction

Children do need to have a firm understanding of addition and the order of numbers before starting subtraction. As in addition, it is good to have a visual aid and a bar of chocolate can help.......!
Here are 4 pieces of chocolate take away 1 piece......how many are left?   Then write the sum for the child as a visual reinforcement   4 - 1 = 3. This procedure should be done in a practical manner before committing any numbers to paper. Writing the sum is the final stage of the learning curve.

How subtraction is taught in school

#### Multiplication

How to teach multiplication

Multiplication is  taught after a pupil has a firm grasp of the principles of addition. Pupils do need to learn their multiplication tables by heart as this will  enable them to work at speed and then be able to progress to more involved maths problems. It is always useful to have visual aids to show the  progress of the tables. Pictures have been in the worksheets as a visual illustration and to establish the concept.

Tables
It is essential that all children learn and understand their tables. Once children have a thorough understanding of the number system they will understand that 2 x 2 = 4. It helps to have a visual picture so using fruit, blocks, sweets or marbles will reinforce understanding and establish the concept involved.

Times tables can be found on the Times tables page.

#### Division

Division is the concept of sharing numbers. If we have 12 currant buns and 4 people how many buns will each person receive? It is easier for children to understand and learn to divide if they use counters/beads/ buns/shells etc. to actually physically work out the question. In the worksheets below you will find a progression of papers which will establish the concept and understanding of division.

How division is taught in school

#### Rules of number

The order of operations means calculating addition, subtraction, squaring in the correct order.. It is easier to remember by the word BODMAS. This stands for Brackets first, Orders which are powers or Square roots. Then Division and Multiplication and finally Addition and Subtraction. Here is an example:
Work out  3 +6 x 2......multiplication before addition: 6 x 2 = 12 then 3 +12=15

or (3 +6) x 2 ......In this case Brackets first 9 x 2 = 18. Now try the questions below: